Taiwan Barnacles

Lepadiformes Buckeridge & Newman, 2006

Common Names

茗荷目 (Chinese)

Languages: English


Diagnostic Description

Hermaphroditic but some species possibly accompanied by complementary male; stalk distinct; capitulum with 5 calcareous plates, 5 or 2 reduced plates, or no plates; caudal appendages variable.

Author(s): Chan, KK; Prabowo, Romanus; Lee, Kwen-Shen Creative Commons: by-nc


Results from a molecular phylogenetic analysis (Pérez-Losada et al., 2004) and larval morphology (Newman & Ross, 2001) suggest that the Lepadomorpha is distinguished from other members of the Thoracica. Buckeridge & Newman (2006) revised the taxonomy of stalked barnacles, rearranging Lepadomorph barnacles into a separate order, the Lepadiformes, which accommodates both suborders Lepadomorpha and Heteralepadomorpha, based on morphological similarities of the 2 groups. The separation of the Lepadiformes from the remainder of the Thoracica was further supported by a recent molecular analysis (Pérez-Losada et al., 2008). Foster (1978) considered the reduction of opercular plates in the capitulum to be a plesiomorphic character for stalked barnacles. However, molecular genetics in Pérez-Losada et al. (2008) showed that the Heteralepadomorpha is not ancestral, but has evolved at least twice from plated pedunculated barnacles. Revision of the systematics of heteralepadomorph barnacles requires further attention.

Author(s): Chan, KK; Prabowo, Romanus; Lee, Kwen-Shen Creative Commons: by-nc


Buckeridge, J. S., & Newman W. A. (2006).   A revision of the Iblidae and the pedunculate barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica), including new ordinal, familial and generic taxa, and two new species from New Zealand and Tasmanian waters . Zootaxa. 1136, 1-38.
Foster, B. A. (1978).  The marine fauna of New Zealand: Barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir. 69, 1-143.
Liu, R. - Y., & Ren X. - Q. (1985).  Studies on Chinese Cirripedia (Crustacea). VI. Suborder Lepadomorpha. Studia Marina Sinica. 25, 179-281. (in Chinese).
Newman, W. A. (1987).  Evolution of Cirripedes and their major groups. (A.J. Southward, Ed.).Barnacle Biology. Crustacean Issues 5. pp. 3-42.
Newman, W. A., & Ross A. (2001).  Prospectus on larval cirripede setation formulae, revisited. Journal of Crustacean Biology. 21, 56-77.
Nilsson-Cantell, C. A. (1921).   Cirripeden-Studien. Zur Kenntnis der Biologie, Antomie und Systematic dieser Gruppe . Zoologiska Bidrag Fran Uppsala. 7, 75-390.
Pilsbry, H. A. (1916).   The sessile barnacles (Cirripedia) collected in the collections of the U. S. National Museum: Including a monograph of the American species . Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 93, 1-366.
Pérez-Losada, M. J., Harp M., Høeg J. T., Achituv Y., Jones D., Watanabe H., et al. (2008).   The tempo and mode of barnacle evolution . Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 46, 328-346.
Pérez-Losada, M. J., Høeg J. T., & Crandall K. A. (2004).   Unraveling the evolutionary radiation of the thoracican barnacles using molecular and morphological evidence: A comparison of several divergence time estimation approaches . Systematic Biology. 53, 244-264.